sadiplod - everything about berries and their cultivation

Cranberries - American varieties

Photo of American varieties of cranberries

American cranberry varieties are distinguished by their large size fruits with a sweet and sour taste. They are suitable for planting throughout Russia. Late-ripening varieties are best planted in the southern regions, otherwise they will not have time to fully ripen before the onset of cold weather.

Cranberry is a low evergreen subshrub of the heather family. The plant is widespread both in our country and in the countries of Europe, America and Canada.
The popularity of cranberries in the United States is so high that in 1994 they were named the official berry of the state of Massachusetts.

There are several main American varieties of cranberries:

  • Ben Lear. Large-fruited cranberry variety with berries up to 1.5 g. Early ripening variety - fruiting begins in September. The variety has average yield and good winter hardiness.
  • Franklin. The variety has good yield - up to 1 kg of berries can be obtained from one bush. Medium-sized fruits - up to 1 g. Medium-early variety - fruiting in mid-September. Has good winter hardiness.
  • Stevens. Large-fruited variety with berries up to 1.8 g. The variety's yield is average, but has good winter hardiness. The fruits ripen by October.
Cranberry is not a berry with high taste characteristics. She is capricious in her choice of soil and cannot be eaten in the summer. The main advantage of this berry lies in its beneficial properties, which are almost not lost during heat treatment. The berry is often called the northern lemon for the highest vitamin C content among other berry crops. Cranberries are actively used in cooking for making sauces, jams, fruit drinks, baked goods, pickles and other dishes.

Earth cranberries - properties

The properties of earthen cranberries are extensive due to the high content of organic acids, phytoncides and microelements. Ground cranberry has a name - physalis and is a medicinal plant. The name comes from the words spherical, swollen - this is exactly the shape of the earthen cranberry fruits, enclosed in a thin cup.

Earth cranberry is a perennial erect plant up to 100 cm in height with branching shoots. The shrub blooms with small white flowers in early May. Fruiting is uneven and extended until the end of autumn.

The main habitat of earthen cranberries is forests. It is found in Russia, the Caucasus, the Baltic countries and Central Asia.

The leaves, roots and fruits of the plant have medicinal properties. They have choleretic and diuretic properties, analgesic, antiseptic and hemostatic.

Due to the sweet and sour taste, the fruits have a universal purpose and can be used to prepare medicinal infusions and decoctions, as well as as an additive to ready-made dishes.
Ground cranberries are indispensable for diseases of the genitourinary and respiratory systems, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, swelling and pain in the joints.

Fresh fruits are used for various skin diseases and high blood pressure. They are also indicated for colds, to treat the oral cavity and improve immunity.
Important: The calyx in which the fruit is enclosed is toxic. It must be removed, and the fruits must be washed well and kept in boiling water.

How to store cranberries, useful properties

In order to learn how to store cranberries, the beneficial properties of which are difficult to overestimate, it is necessary to observe the harvest time. The fact is that the composition of the fruit changes depending on the harvesting period. In Rus', cranberries were often harvested in the spring, long before the harvest of other berry crops appeared. Such overwintered berries were valued much more than autumn ones. Spring berries are tastier and contain more acids, but lose some of their vitamins.

In autumn, cranberries are collected for long-term storage. This can be done when the fruits are not yet ripe and do not have a distinct color. If, after picking the berries, they are placed in a warm place, they will gradually ripen and take on a natural color.

You can wait until the cranberries are fully ripened and harvest them in late autumn. Such fruits contain a complex of vitamins and organic acids, so they can be used for medicinal purposes. The high content of benzoic acid allows you to increase the shelf life of berries up to 2 years in a cool place.

It is best to pick cranberries when the berries are slightly frozen by frost. In this case, its taste characteristics increase and all useful substances are preserved.

The berries can be stored in their natural form or used to make jam and other dessert preparations.

Ripe berries are stored well in a cool place filled with boiled water. The shelf life will depend on the degree of ripeness of the berries.

To store cranberries, you can pickle them by adding sugar and vinegar to water. If necessary, you can add berry juice and apple slices to the marinade.

Cranberries collected in spring have a significantly shorter shelf life.

Cranberries are used to improve metabolism, for colds, high blood pressure, and to treat the bladder and kidneys. The berry has a beneficial effect on the intestines and liver, helps with skin diseases and improves appetite. The berries are used to prevent atherosclerosis and oncology. Cranberries are useful to consume during periods of depression or stressful situations, as well as to strengthen the immune system.

Swamp cranberry - cultivation

Growing swamp cranberries is not much different from growing large-fruited cranberries. Swamp cranberry or common cranberry originates from European countries. Under natural conditions, swamp cranberry grows in swampy areas of forests, tundra and forest-tundra.

Swamp cranberry is a small shrub with small leaves and thin stems. The plant is characterized by slow growth and evergreen leaves.

To grow swamp cranberries, you need acidic soil, which creates ideal conditions for the existence of mycorrhiza - a symbiosis with fungi. Without this symbiosis, the existence of the plant is impossible.
Caring for swamp cranberries consists of watering, pruning, fertilizing and preventive treatment against diseases.

Particular attention must be paid to watering the plant: the soil must be constantly moist. In early summer, watering may be infrequent, but during the dry season, cranberries should be watered every day. It is best to use complex fertilizers, and treat diseases several times during the summer.

Tip: For better pollination, you can plant honey plants next to the cranberries.

In winter, cranberries can be covered with any breathable material or just snow.

Among the varieties of swamp cranberries, the most popular are: Dar Kostroma, Sominskaya, Sazonovskaya, Krasa Severa, Alaya Zapovednaya.

Early Black cranberry variety

The Early Black cranberry variety is a shrub no more than 15 cm in height with large red or dark purple fruits. The shrub has good frost resistance and excellent taste. More suitable for the northern regions of the country with heavy rainfall. Growing in regions with little snow requires additional shelter for the plant for the winter.

Planting of seedlings of the selected variety can be carried out both in spring and autumn. In order for the crop to fully meet all expectations, it is best to purchase cranberry seedlings from a nursery. This will allow you to get a healthy, high-quality plant with high disease resistance. Such seedlings will take root well on the site and will delight you with healthy and tasty berries from the age of three.