sadiplod - everything about berries and their cultivation

American blueberries - cultivation

Photo of growing American blueberry

The cultivation of American blueberries became possible thanks to breeding work carried out by scientist Coville in 1908 in the USA. The domestication process took several years, and wild blueberry varieties were taken as the basis. Coville and his colleagues studied the full cycle of plant development from planting to fruiting. As a result, scientists were able to obtain two varieties: Brooks and Russell. Later, other varieties were developed from them.

The selection of highbush blueberries was picked up in Canada in 1930, and in 1964 Moscow scientists took up it.

American blueberries are much taller than wild blueberries and can reach up to 4 meters. The fruits are also larger in size - about 25 grams. The varieties are characterized by a high yield - from 10 kg of berries. American blueberries grow primarily in warm regions and are not very cold-tolerant. To grow blueberries in the Urals and Siberia, it is better to choose varieties specially adapted to these regions.

It is noteworthy that in the United States, where the highbush blueberry originated, blueberries and blueberries have a common name because they are considered the same berry.

American highbush blueberry - planting and care

Planting and caring for American highbush blueberries is carried out in the spring. It is better to purchase seedlings from well-known nurseries so that their quality fully meets your expectations.

Advice: It is better to purchase seedlings with a closed root system.

The place for planting is sunny and open. The soil can be sandy or peaty with a pH of 3.5 - 5.0. A planting hole up to 50 cm deep is prepared in the selected location. The bottom is lined with peat, pine sawdust and sulfur. Blueberries cannot tolerate manure and humus. Malic acid can be used to acidify the soil. Acetic and citric acids are also suitable, with which you need to fertilize the planting hole. Usually garden soils are not so acidic, since the majority of plants do not like it, so these manipulations are necessary. You can use complex fertilizers designed specifically for blueberries.

To create better conditions for the plant, you can cover the bottom of the planting hole with a film that will retain moisture well. However, blueberries do not like flooding, so it is necessary to make slits on the surface of the film.

Enough space is left between the bushes, at least 1 meter. After planting, the plant needs to be watered and mulched. Pine sawdust, straw or peat are best suited as mulch. Mulching will prevent the growth of weeds and premature evaporation of moisture. Every two years the layer of mulch needs to be thickened.

After planting a plant that is more than 2 years old, pruning is carried out. In this case, excess branches are removed, and the rest are shortened. Planting in the spring will ensure better adaptation of the plant, but it can also be done in the fall.

During the entire season, it is necessary to loosen the soil and water the blueberries. Loosening is carried out several times for best drainage. At the same time, weeds are removed.

Watering should be done twice a week. American blueberries love moist soils, but do not grow in swampy areas. Therefore, all watering should be aimed at moistening. Water should not stagnate in one place for more than two days, otherwise it may lead to the death of the plant. It is best to water blueberries in the morning and after sunset - both times, one bucket of water for each bush. During the months of fruit set, blueberries will experience an increased need for moisture. At this time, it is extremely important not to skip watering, otherwise blueberries will not be pleased with the harvest even next year.

American highbush blueberry - varieties, description

A description of American highbush blueberry varieties will be useful for those who have chosen this species for cultivation. American blueberries are well suited for growing in the southern regions of Russia, as are reka variety blueberries.

The most interesting representatives of the plant are:

  • Pioneer. The variety has been actively grown since 1920. The height of the bushes is about one and a half meters. The yield is good - up to 7 kg per bush. But ripe fruits do not stick well to the branches. They crack and fall off. The berries have a pleasant sweetish taste, their size is up to 15 mm. Blueberries have good frost resistance and are not sensitive to sudden temperature changes.
  • Cabot. Began to be used in 1920. Shrub about one and a half meters tall with branched branches. The yield of the variety is average - no more than 5 kg, but the berries themselves are up to 17 mm. Blueberries are distinguished by early fruiting - the berries can be picked as early as July. The winter hardiness of the plant is average.
  • Bluecrop. American blueberry, grown since 1952. The plant is about 2 meters tall. Medium ripening variety - fruiting begins in early August. The fruits are large - up to 22 mm with thick skin. They tolerate transportation well. Productivity up to 9 kg. The variety has high frost resistance.
  • Rubel. The shrub reaches a height of up to 2 meters. Fruiting begins in August. Despite the fact that the berries are quite small, you can get up to 9 kg of berries from one bush. The fruits are juicy, sweet and sour with thick skin. Has good resistance to disease and frost.

American highbush blueberries - varieties for the Moscow region

American highbush blueberry varieties for the Moscow region are distinguished by stable fruiting and good frost resistance. The most promising varieties:

  • Dixie. It has been actively used for cultivation since 1936. The height of the bush is about 2 meters. The plant has a late ripening period - the berries ripen in the second half of August. The yield is good - up to 7 kg per bush. The berries are large, about 22 mm, and have a pleasant sweet and sour taste. The variety has good frost resistance.
  • Jersey. American variety, approved for use in 1928. The height of the bush can be about 2 meters. The bush is medium spreading with a yield of about 6 kg. The berries ripen in mid-August and have a diameter of about 16 mm. The variety is resistant to major diseases and frost.
  • Rancocas. The variety began to be used in 1926. The shrub grows well and reaches 2 meters. Fruiting is mid-late. The berries are medium-sized and flattened. In rainy weather they may crack and fall off. Productivity up to 6 kg. The variety has good frost resistance and is resistant to the most common diseases.
  • Weymouth. Medium spreading shrub about 1 meter in height. Medium late ripening. Berries up to 15 mm with good taste characteristics. Productivity is low - up to 2 kg per bush.

American highbush blueberry - beneficial properties and contraindications

The beneficial properties of American highbush blueberry and its contraindications will be valuable information when growing this crop on your site.
Highbush blueberries contain organic acids, a complex of vitamins, carotene, fiber, pectins and minerals.

The berries have anti-inflammatory, antidysenteric, diuretic and choleretic effects. Quite often used as additives to various medications, dietary supplements and various drinks. The berries are recommended for consumption for digestive problems, colitis and gastritis of the stomach. Blueberries improve intestinal permeability, normalize the pancreas and liver.

The berry is also used to strengthen the heart and blood vessels. Thanks to its function to lower blood sugar levels, its use helps cope with simple forms of diabetes.
Blueberries contain a large amount of antioxidants, so they have a rejuvenating effect.

Tip: Thanks to the vitamin composition, blueberries can be used for colds.

Blueberries are such a healthy berry that they have virtually no contraindications. The berry is not only suitable for universal use, but also useful for people of all ages.
The only exceptions may be individual intolerance to this berry and allergic reactions. But they are quite rare.

American blueberries undoubtedly deserve to be on the plot, especially since the plant does not need serious care.